The COVID-19 pandemic that all countries in the world are facing is a serious incident due to the Coronavirus. History records that a pandemic caused by SARS-CoV also hit in 2002-2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) in 2012.
COVID-19 has an impact on all sectors of life, from health, economy, society, culture, and politics, to defense and security. The world is now uniting against COVID-19 to recover and normalize all aspects of life.
Therefore a Power of Particles was held for this Solution. Power of Particles is a dedicated portal to bring together well-researched articles on nanomedicine from leading experts.
Before discussing the NanoVaccine, let’s discuss the core components of vaccine design. Vaccine components consist of nanoparticles, antigens, adjuvants or nanocarriers, and devices. A nanoparticle (both viral and non-viral) can function as a nanocarrier to both envelop and present an antigen payload or antigen-coding nucleic acid.
Nanocareers provide stability and targeting of all this payload towards APCs (antigen-presenting cells). Synchronizing nanocarriers can deliver both antigens and adjuvants to target immune cells. The Covid vaccine device can be in the form of an implant, syringe, or mini needle (microneedle patch).
Antigens are foreign materials that can induce an immune response in the body, often of pathogenic origin. Based on the antigens that appear, vaccines can be categorized into live-attenuated vaccines (derived from attenuated pathogens that can replicate but do not cause disease), inactivated vaccines (derived from pathogens that are unable to replicate or infect), subunit vaccines (having minimal antigenic elements from the pathogen). , for example, proteins, protein subunits, polysaccharides, and VLPs self-assembled from these components.
All of these antigens are in purified forms whose administration is combined with molecular adjuvants or which are expressed in vivo using various RNA, DNA, or viral vectors, peptide-based vaccines (peptides are essential elements of protein subunits that are recognized by the immune system. All of these antigens have been above containing peptide epitopes).
An adjuvant is a stimulus agent designed to strengthen the immune response to further function as a co-delivered antigen. Please note, live-attenuated and inactivated viral vaccines can be considered nanoparticles.
Nanomedicine is the term given to science and technology relating to nanometer dimensions used in the design, production, characterization, and application of materials, structures, equipment, and systems. One nanometer is equal to one billionth of a meter, the equivalent of 3.3356 X 10 (the power of minus 18) seconds of light.
One of the solutions to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic is Nanomedicine. Why Nanomedicine? It should be noted that SARS-CoV-2 has nanometric dimensions and nanostructures in its core and envelope.
Thus, it is hoped that Nanomedicine can be recommended as a functional nanomaterial to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, the dose of the active ingredient (hydrogen peroxide) required for the inactivation of the virus was significantly reduced (nanogram levels), proving the viability of this platform.
According to the expert, Nanomedicine can be a solution for overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic through several approaches, such as efforts to prevent splashes and virus contamination through several strategies.
First, a nano-based sensor design with high sensitivity and specificity for the rapid identification of infection or immune response.
Second, the design of safe-infection-free personal protective equipment to increase the safety of medical personnel in health services, as well as the development of effective antiviral disinfectants and surface coatings, which are capable of inactivating the virus while preventing its spread.
Third, the development of Nanomedicine-based vaccinations to strengthen cellular and humoral immune responses. Fourth, the development of new drugs with increased activity, reduced toxicity, and continuous release to target tissues, such as the lungs.
Current diagnostic tools for detecting COVID-19 are PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)-based nucleic acid tests and serological assays that can detect the presence of antibodies during respiratory system infections. Diagnosis in the early stages of COVID-19 mainly focuses on detecting the viral genome via real-time PCR.
Meanwhile, the determination of immunoglobulin G and M antibody levels begins after 5-7 days or more than 10 days. Successively, through serological tests, such as ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), chemiluminescence assay, immunofluorescence assay, or ICT (immunochromatographic) test.
Nanomaterials are an important component of these technologies, which are key factors in the detection or transduction of biochemical interactions. The nanoparticles agglomerate the presence of the virus target RNA, making it detectable to the naked eye in about ten minutes.
The RNA platform uses mRNA-based Nanomedicine encapsulated by LNPs (lipid nanoparticles) or self-amplifying RNAs encoding the SARS-CoV-2 glycoprotein, receptor-binding domains, or coding for VLPs (virus-like particles).
The advantages of the mRNA vaccines for covid platform are the protection of RNA from RNases, adjuvant effect, induction of a strong T-helper response and increased germinal center B cells, production of several neutralizing antibodies with high-affinity levels, and induction of local innate immunity.
The subunit vaccine also uses Nanomedicine. The following is a brief explanation and its advantages.
First, the VLP capsid displays SARS-CoV-2. The advantage is to produce a dense antigen display and bring about a strong neutralizing antibody response, a high degree of safety, and effectiveness.
Second, the peptide antigen is formulated in LNP. The advantage is that it has a high safety level, allowing a sustained, specific, strong humoral immune response to neutralize the non-overlapping epitopes of the spike protein.
Thirdly, peptide microspheres are added. The advantage is that it induces a strong immune response, producing neutralizing antibodies.
Fourth, recombinant proteins, nanoparticles (based on spike proteins, and various other epitopes). The advantage is that it induces strong neutralizing antibodies.
Fifth, adjuvants based on saponins, cholesterol, and phospholipid particles; the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 glycoprotein nanoparticle vaccine was given Matrix M adjuvant. The advantage is that it reduces the antigen dose, and stimulates various long-term cellular and humoral neutralizing immune responses against protein S in SARS-CoV-2.